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پرتوها،ایمنی و کاربرد آنها - پرتو چیست؟

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پرتو چیست؟

تاریخ:پنجشنبه 29 مرداد 1388-01:34 ب.ظ

پرتو شكلی از انرژی است كه در خلاء یا ماده منتشر می‌شود. برخی از انواع پرتوها دارای جرم و برخی دیگر فاقد جرم هستند و باتوجه به انرژی دارای قدرت نفوذ در موادهستند. پرتوها به طور كلی به دو دسته یون ساز و غیریونساز تقسیم‌بندی می‌كنند. 

پرتو های یونساز:

پرتوهای یونساز به آن دسته از پرتوها گفته می‌شود كه در برخورد با محیطهای مادی انرژی كافی برای یونیزان آن محیط مادی را داشته باشند. پرتوهای یونساز خود به دو دسته تقسیم می‌شوند.

1- پرتوهای ذره‌ای

این پرتوها ذرات مادی با انرژی های متفاوت می‌باشند. پرتوهای ذره‌ای خود به دو دسته با بارالكتریكی مانند βوα و پروتون و الكترون و بدون بار الكتریكی مانند نوترون و گاما تقسیم‌بندی می‌شوند كه در ادامه درباره برخی از آنها توضیحات مختصری داده خواهد شد.

گسیل ذره آلفا :

هنگامی كه نسبت تعداد نوترون به پروتون در یك ایزوتوپ پرتوزا خیلی پایین باشد، از هسته آن ایزوتوپ یك هسته پرانرژی هلیم به نام ذره آلفا گسیل می‌شود. این ذره،ذره‌ای سنگین با بار الكتریكی مثبت است و از دو پروتون و دو نوترون تشكیل شده است. از آنجا در تبدیل هسته‌ای اعداد اتمی و اعداد جرمی پا یسته می‌مانند، در نتیجه درگسیل آلفا دختر- هسته‌‌ای تولید خواهد شد كه عدد اتمی‌اش به اندازه 2 واحد و عدد جرمی‌اش به اندازه 4 واحد كمتر از اعداد مربوط به مادر- هسته‌ است.

گسیل بتا:

ذره بتا یك الكترون معمولی است كه از هسته یك اتم ناپایدار بتازا گسیل می‌شود. این ذره یك واحد بارالكتریكی منفی (c19-10×6/1) وجرم بسیار كوچكی (amu00055/0)دارد.

گسیل پوزیترون:

در مواردی كه نسبت تعداد نوترون به پروتون خیلی پایین وگسیل آلفا هم به لحاظ انرژی غیرممكن باشند، احتمال دارد كه هسته تحت شرایط خاصی با گسیل پوزیترون به پایداری برسد. پوزیترون ذره بتاست كه بار الكتریكی مثبت دارد. این ذره از جهات دیگر همانند ذره‌های بتای منفی یاالكترون معمولی است. جرم پزیترون برابر amu000548/0 و بار آن برابر C19-10×6/1 است. چون هسته هنگام گسیل پوزیترون یك بار مثبت ازدست می‌دهد عدد اتمی دختر- هسته به اندازه یك واحد از مادر- هسته كمتر است. اما عدد جرمی در این مورد همانند تمام واپاشی ‌های الكترونی هسته ها بدون تغییر می‌ماند.

در حالیكه الكترون در طبیعت به طور آزاد یافت می‌شود، پزیترون فقط به طور گذرا می تواند به صورت آزاد در طبیعت وجود داشته باشد. پوزیترونهای موجود در طبیعت فقط در اثر برهم كنش میان پرتوهای كیهانی وجو تولید می‌شوند، و در فاصله چند میكروثانیه پس از تشكیل از بین می‌روند.




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